EMA – Media Móvil Exponencial – definiciones y usos

media movil exponencial EMA Exponential Moving Average

¿Qué es la media móvil exponencial – EMA?

Una media móvil exponencial (EMA) es un tipo de media móvil (MA) que coloca un mayor peso y significación en los puntos de datos más recientes. La media móvil exponencial también se conoce como la media móvil ponderada exponencialmente. Una media móvil ponderada exponencialmente reacciona más significativamente a los cambios recientes de precios que a una media móvil simple (SMA), que aplica un peso igual a todas las observaciones del período. A continuación veremos su configuración más usual en Metatrader 4 y 5:

CLAVES PARA ENTENDER LA MEDIA MÓVIL EXPONENCIAL (EMA)

La EMA es una media móvil que coloca un mayor peso y significado en los puntos de datos más recientes.

Como todas las medias móviles, este indicador técnico se utiliza para producir señales de compra y venta basadas en cruces y divergencias de la media histórica.

Los traders a menudo utilizan varias combinaciones de medias móviles exponenciales diferentes donde las más usadas son EMA ‘s, por ejemplo, de 14, 20, 30 , 90 , y 200 períodos.

¿Qué nos indican las medias móviles exponenciales (EMA)?

Las medias móviles exponenciales (EMA) de 14 y 26 períodos son a menudo las medias a corto plazo más citadas o analizadas. Los 12 y 26 períodos se utilizan para crear indicadores como la divergencia de convergencia de media móvil (MACD) y el oscilador de precio porcentual (PPO). En general, los EMA de 50 y 200 períodos se utilizan como señales de tendencias a largo plazo. Cuando los precios de los activos financieros cruzan su media móvil de 200 días, es un indicador técnico de que se ha producido una reversión.

Los traders que emplean el análisis técnico encuentran medias móviles muy útiles y perspicaces cuando se aplican correctamente, pero crean estragos cuando se usan incorrectamente o se malinterpretan. Todas las medias móviles comúnmente utilizadas en el análisis técnico son, por su propia naturaleza, indicadores rezagados. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones extraídas de la aplicación de una media móvil a un gráfico de mercado determinado deben ser confirmar un movimiento del mercado o indicar su fuerza. Muy a menudo, en el momento en que una línea indicadora de media móvil ha hecho un cambio para reflejar un movimiento significativo en el mercado, el punto óptimo de entrada en el mercado ya ha pasado. Una EMA sirve para aliviar este dilema en cierta medida. Debido a que el cálculo EMA pone más peso en los últimos datos, “abraza” la acción del precio un poco más apretado y por lo tanto reacciona más rápidamente. Esto es deseable cuando una EMA se utiliza para derivar una señal de entrada de trading.

Usos comunes de la EMA

Los EMA se utilizan comúnmente junto con otros indicadores para confirmar movimientos significativos del mercado y para medir su validez. Para los traders que comercian intradía y mercados de rápido movimiento, la EMA es más aplicable. Muy a menudo, los comerciantes utilizan EMAs para determinar un sesgo comercial. Por ejemplo, si una EMA en un gráfico diario muestra una fuerte tendencia al alza, la estrategia de un comerciante intradía puede ser operar sólo desde el lado largo en un gráfico intradía.

La diferencia entre EMA vs SMA

La principal diferencia entre una media móvil exponencial y una media móvil simple es la sensibilidad que cada uno muestra a los cambios en los datos utilizados en su cálculo.

Más específicamente, la EMA da una mayor ponderación a los precios recientes, mientras que el SMA asigna la misma ponderación a todos los valores. Los dos promedios son similares porque se interpretan de la misma manera y ambos son comúnmente utilizados por los comerciantes técnicos para suavizar las fluctuaciones de precios. Dado que los EMA colocan una mayor ponderación en los datos recientes que en los datos más antiguos, son más reactivos a los últimos cambios de precios que los SMA, lo que hace que los resultados de los EMA sean más oportunos y explica por qué la EMA es el promedio preferido entre muchos comerciantes.

Limitaciones de la EMA

No está claro si se debe hacer más hincapié o no en los períodos más recientes en el período de tiempo o en datos más distantes. Muchos traders creen que los nuevos datos reflejarán mejor la tendencia actual con la que se mueve la seguridad; mientras tanto, otros sienten que privilegar ciertas fechas que otras sesgará la tendencia. Por lo tanto, la EMA está sujeta a sesgo de recencia.

Del mismo modo, la EMA se basa totalmente en datos históricos. Muchas personas (incluidos los economistas) creen que los mercados son eficientes, es decir, que los precios actuales del mercado ya reflejan toda la información disponible. Si los mercados son realmente eficientes, el uso de datos históricos no debería decirnos nada sobre la dirección futura de los precios de los activos.

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